share

Birds and Bats Fact Sheet


Wind Turbine Interactions with Birds, Bats, and their Habitats: A Summary of Research Results and Priority Questions

Fact_Sheet_v11

To view an updated version of this fact sheet, click here.

This fact sheet, which is a product of the NWCC Wildlife Workgroup, summarizes what is known about bird and bat interactions with land-based wind power in North America, including habitat impacts, and what key questions and knowledge gaps remain. It uses a three-tiered classification of wind-wildlife relationships based on the weight of the evidence and agreement, or lack thereof, among researchers in the field on each particular statement contained in the Fact Sheet.

“What Studies Have Shown” are conclusions widely supported by peer-reviewed studies and on which there is broad consensus among researchers.

“What Is Less Well Understood” presents ideas reached by some field studies, but either the evidence is too limited to support a firm and broadly applicable conclusion, there is some evidence to the contrary, or there is some controversy regarding the idea among researchers.

“Areas Where Little Is Known” presents questions to which even tentative conclusions cannot yet be reached based on current information and data gaps. These questions are hypotheses yet to be tested or are gaps in current knowledge that have been identified by researchers.

The information presented is restricted to land-based wind facilities.

Click to Download the Fact Sheet

The production of this document was supported, in whole or in part, by the United States Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AT01-07EE11218. Financial support by the Department of Energy does not constitute an endorsement by the Department of Energy on the views expressed in this document, nor do the views and opinions of authors expressed herein necessarily state or reflect those of the United States government or any agency thereof.

Review Team:

  • Rene Braud, Horizon Wind Energy
  • Noel Cutright, We Energies (ret)
  • Aimee Delach, Defenders of Wildlife
  • Jeff Deyette, Union of Concerned Scientists
  • Rick Greiner, Pattern Energy
  • Albert Manville, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
  • Jerry Roppe, Iberdrola Renewables
  • Karin Sinclair, National Renewable Energy Laboratory
  • Danna Small, Horizon Wind Energy

Technical Input:

  • Michael Morrison, Ph.D., Professor and Caesar Kleberg Chair in Wildlife Ecology and Conservation, Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences, Texas A&M University
  • Ed Arnett, Ph.D., BWEC Project Coordinator, Bat Conservation International
  • Dale Strickland, Ph.D., President and Senior Ecologist, Western EcoSystems Technology, Inc.
  • Douglas Johnson, Ph.D., Research Statistician and Senior Scientist, USGS Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center

Literature citations supporting the information presented parenthetically in the fact sheet are listed below, with links to references located online when available.

Anderson, R., M.L. Morrison, K. Sinclair, and D. Strickland. 1999. Studying wind energy/bird interactions: a guidance document. National Wind Coordinating Committee, Washington, D.C.

Anderson, R.L., N. Neumann, J. Tom, W.P. Erickson, M.D. Strickland, M. Bourassa, K.J. Bay, and K.J. Sernka. 2004. Avian Monitoring and Risk Assessment at the Tehachapi Pass Wind Resource Area: Period of Performance: October 2, 1996–May 27, 1998. NREL/SR-500-36416. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO.

Anderson, R.L., J. Tom, N. Neumann, W.P. Erickson, M.D. Strickland, M. Bourassa, K.J. Bay, and K.J. Sernka. 2005. Avian Monitoring and Risk Assessment at the San Gorgonio Wind Resource Area: Phase I Field Work: March 3, 1997-May 29, 1998; Phase II Field Work: August 18, 1999-August 11, 2000. NREL/SR-500-38054. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO.

Arnett, E. B., W. K. Brown, W. P. Erickson, J. K. Fiedler, B. I. Hamilton, T. H. Henry, A. Jain, G. D. Johnson, J. Kerns, R. R. Koford, C. P. Nicholson, T. J. O’Connell, M. D. Piorkowski, R. D. Tankersley Jr. 2008. Patterns of Bat Fatalities at Wind Energy Facilities in North America. Journal of Wildlife Management. 72: 61-78.

Arnett, E. B., M. Schirmacher, M. M. P. Huso, and J. P. Hayes. 2009. Effectiveness of changing wind turbine cut-in speed to reduce bat mortalities at wind facilities. An annual report submitted to the Bats and Wind Energy Cooperative. Bat Conservation International. Austin, Texas, USA.

Avery, M. L., P. F. Springer, J. F. Cassel. 1976. The effects of a tall tower on nocturnal bird migration: a portable ceilometers study. Auk. 93: 281-291.

Baerwald, E. F., J. Edworthy, M. Holder, and R. M. R. Barclay. 2008. Barotrauma is a significant cause of bat mortalities at wind turbines. Current Biology. 18: 695–696.

Baerwald, E. F., J. Edworthy, M. Holder, and R. M. R. Barclay. 2009. A large-scale mitigation experiment to reduce bat mortalities at wind energy facilities. Journal of Wildlife Management. 73: 1077-1081.

Barclay, R. M. R., and L. M. Harder. 2003. “Life histories of bats: Life in the slow lane.” pp 209-253 in Bat Ecology, T. H. Kunz and M. B. Fenton (eds.) University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL.

Barclay, R. M. R., E. F. Baerwald, and J. C. Gruver. 2007. Variation in bat and bird mortalities at wind energy facilities: assessing the effects of rotor size and tower height. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 85: 381–387.

Barrios, L. and A. Rodríguez. 2004. Behavioural and environmental correlates of soaring-bird mortality at on-shore wind turbines. Journal of Applied Ecology. 41: 72-81.

Bednarz, J. C., D. Klem, L. J. Goodrich, and S. E. Senner. 1990. Migration counts of raptors at Hawk Mountain, Pennsylvania, as indicators of population trends, 1934-1986. Auk. 107: 96-109.

Brown, W. K., and B. L. Hamilton. 2004. Bird and bat monitoring at the McBride Lake Wind Farm, Alberta, 2003-2004. Report for Vision Quest Windelectric, Inc., Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Brown, W. K., and B. L. Hamilton. 2006a. Bird and bat interactions with wind turbines: Castle River Wind Farm, Alberta, 2001-2002. Report for Vision Quest Windeletric, Inc., Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Brown, W. K., and B. L. Hamilton. 2006b. Monitoring of bird and bat collisions with wind turbines at the Summerview Wind Power Project, Alberta, 2005-2006. Report for Vision Quest Windeletric, Inc., Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Cryan, P. M. 2008. Mating behavior as a possible cause of bat fatalities at wind turbines. Journal of Wildlife Management. 72: 845-849.

Cryan, P. M. and A. C. Brown 2007. Migration of bats past a remote island offers clues toward the problem of bat fatalities at wind turbines.Biological Conservation. 139: 1-11.

Curry, R. C., and P. Kerlinger. 1998. Avian mitigation plan: Kinetic model wind turbines, Altamont Pass Wind Resources Area, California. Technical report by Curry and Kerlinger, LLC. McLean, Virginia, USA.

Erickson, W.P., G. D. Johnson, M. D. Strickland, D. P. Young Jr., K. Sernka, and R. Good. 2001. Avian Collisions with Wind Turbines: A Summary of Existing Studies and Comparisons to Other Sources of Avian Collision Mortality in the United States. Washington, DC: Resolve, Inc.

Erickson, W. P., G. D. Johnson, D. P. Young Jr., M. D. Strickland, R. Good, M. Bourassa, K. Bay, and K. Sernka. 2002. Synthesis and Comparison of Baseline Avian and Bat Use, Raptor Nesting and Mortality Information from Proposed and Existing Wind Developments. Prepared by Western EcoSystems Technology (WEST), Inc., Cheyenne, WY, for Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR.

Erickson, W.P., J. Jeffrey, K. Kronner, and K. Bay. 2004. Stateline Wind Project Wildlife Monitoring Report: July 2001–December 2003. Prepared for FPL Energy, Stateline Technical Advisory Committee, Oregon Department of Energy, by Western EcoSystems Technology (WEST), Inc., Cheyenne, WY and Walla Walla, WA; and Northwest Wildlife Consultants, Inc., Pendleton, OR.

Everaert, J. 2003. Wind turbines and birds in Flanders: preliminary study results and recommendations. Natuur. Oriolus. 69: 145-155.

FAA (Federal Aviation Administration). 2007. Obstruction marking and lighting. Advisory Circular AC 70/7460-1K, U.S. Dept. Transportation. 55 pp.

Fiedler, J. K. 2004. Assessment of bat mortality and activity at Buffalo Mountain Windfarm, eastern Tennessee. M.S. Thesis, University of Tennessee, Knoxville.

Fiedler, J. K., T. H. Henry, C. P. Nicholson, and R. D. Tankersley. 2007. Results of bat and bird mortality monitoring at the expanded Buffalo Mountain windfarm, 2005. Tennessee Valley Authority, Knoxville, USA.

Fuhlendorf, S.D., A.J.W. Woodward, D. M. Leslie, Jr., and J.S. Shackford. 2002. Multi-Scale Effects of Habitat Loss and Fragmentation on Lesser Prairie-Chicken Populations. Landscape Ecology. 17: 601-615. 

GAO (Government Accountability Office). 2005. Wind Power: Impacts on Wildlife and Government Responsibilities for Regulating Development and Protecting Wildlife. GAO- 05-9006. Washington, DC.

Gehring, J., P. Kerlinger, and A.M. Manville, II. 2009. Communication towers, lights, and birds: successful methods of reducing the frequency of avian collisions. Ecological Applications. 19: 505-514.

Giesen, K.M. 1994. Movements and Nesting Habitat of Lesser Prairie-Chickens in Colorado. Southwestern Naturalist. 39: 96-98. 

Gill, J.P., M. Townsley, and G.P. Mudge. 1996. Review of the Impacts of Wind Farms and Other Aerial Structures upon Birds. Scottish Natural Heritage Review. No. 21. Edinburgh: Scottish Natural Heritage.

Hodos, W. 2003. Minimization of motion smear: reducing avian collisions with wind turbines. Period of performance: 12 July 1999 to 31 August 2002. United States Department of Energy, National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technical Report NREL/SR-500–33249, Golden, Colorado, USA.

Hodos, W., A. Potocki, T. Storm, and M. Gaffney. 2001. Reduction of Motion Smear to Reduce Avian Collisions with Wind Turbines. Pages 88-105 in Proceedings of the National Avian-Wind Power Planning Meeting IV. Avian Subcommittee of the National Wind Coordinating Committee, Carmel, CA.

Hoover, S.L., and M.L. Morrison. 2005. Behavior of Red-tailed Hawks in a wind turbine development. Journal of Wildlife Management. 69: 150-159.

Horn, J. W., E. B. Arnett, & T. H. Kunz. 2008. Behavioral Responses of Bats to Operating Wind Turbines. Journal of Wildlife Management. 72: 123–132.

Jain, A. 2005. Bird and Bat Behavior and Mortality at a Northern Iowa Windfarm. M.S. Thesis. Iowa State University, Ames, IA. 107pp

Johnson, G.D. 2005. A review of bat mortality at wind-energy developments in the United States. Bat Research News. 46: 45-49.

Johnson, G. D., W. P. Erickson, M. D. Strickland, M. F. Shepherd, D. A. Shepherd, and S. A. Sarappo. 2002. Collision mortality of local and migrant birds at a large-scale wind-power development on Buffalo Ridge, Minnesota. Wildlife Society Bulletin. 30: 879-887.

Jones, K., A. Purvis, and J. Gittleman. 2003. Biological correlates of extinction risks in bats. American Naturalist. 161: 601-614.

Kerlinger, P. 2000. Avian mortality at communication towers: a review of recent literature, research, and methodology. Cape May, New Jersey. Prepared for the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, Office of Migratory Bird Management by Curry & Kerlinger LLC, Cape May Point, NJ.

Kerlinger, P. and J. Kerns. 2003. FAA Lighting of Wind Turbines and Bird Collisions. Presentation at the National Wind Coordinating Committee–Wildlife Working Group Meeting:  How Is Biological Significance Determined When Assessing Possible Impacts? November 17-18, 2003, Washington, D.C.

Kingsley, A. and B. Whittam. 2007. Wind Turbines and Birds: A Background Review for Environmental Assessment. Prepared by Bird Studies Canada Prepared for Environment Canada / Canadian Wildlife Service.

Kunz, T. H., E. B. Arnett, W. P. Erickson, A. R. Hoar, G. D. Johnson, R. P. Larkin, M. D. Strickland, R. W. Thresher, and M. D. Tuttle. 2007a. Ecological impacts of wind energy development on bats: questions, research needs, and hypotheses. Frontiers in Ecology & the Environment. 5: 315–324.

Kunz, T. H., E. B. Arnett, B. M. Cooper, W. P. Erickson, R. P. Larkin, T. Mabee, M. L. Morrison, M. D. Strickland, and J. M. Szewczak. 2007b. Assessing Impacts of Wind-Energy Development on Nocturnally Active Birds and Bats. Journal of Wildlife Management. 71: 2449–2486.

Kuvlesky, W. P., L. A. Brennan, M. L. Morrison, K. K. Boydston, B. M. Ballard, F. C. Bryant. 2007. Wind energy development and wildlife conservation: Challenges and opportunities. Journal of Wildlife Management. 71: 2487-2498.

Longcore, T., C. Rich, S. A. Gauthreaux, Jr. 2008. Height, guy wires, and steady-burning lights increase hazard of communication towers to nocturnal migrants: a review and meta-analysis. Auk. 125: 485-492.

Manes, R., S. Harmon, B. Obermeyer, and R. Applegate. 2002. Wind energy and wildlife: an attempt at pragmatism. Wildlife Management Institute, Washington, DC.

Manville, A.M., II. 2004. Prairie grouse leks and wind turbines: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service justification for a 5-mile buffer from leks; additional grassland songbird recommendations. Division of Migratory Bird Management, USFWS, Arlington, VA, peer-reviewed briefing paper. 17 pp.

Manville, A.M., II. 2005. Bird strikes and electrocutions at power lines, communication towers, and wind turbines: state of the art and state of the science – next steps toward mitigation. Bird Conservation Implementation in the Americas: Proceedings 3rd International Partners in Flight Conference 2002, C.J. Ralph and T. D. Rich, Editors. U.S.D.A. Forest Service General Technical Report PSW-GTR-191, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Albany, CA: 1051-1064.

Manville, A.M., II. 2009. Towers, turbines, power lines, and buildings – steps being taken by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to avoid or minimize take of migratory birds at these structures. Pp. 262-272, In T.D. Rich, C. Arizmendi, D. Demarest, and C. Thompson (eds.). Tundra to Tropics: Connecting Habitats and People. Proceedings 4th International Partners in Flight Conference, 13-16 February 2008, McAllen, Texas. Partners in Flight.

Miller, A. 2008. Patterns of avian and bat mortality at a utility-scaled wind farm on the southern high plains. Thesis, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas, USA.

Morrison, M. L. 2006. Bird Movements and Behaviors in the Gulf Coast Region: Relation to Potential Wind Energy Developments November 22, 2000 – October 31, 2005. Prepared under Subcontract No. TAT-1-31200-01. College Station, Texas, Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences, Texas A&M University National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

NAS (National Academy of Sciences). 2007. Environmental Impacts of Wind-Energy Projects. The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., USA.

Orloff, S., and A. Flannery. 1992. Wind Turbine Effects on Avian Activity, Habitat Use, and Mortality in Altamont Pass and Solano County Wind Resource Areas, 1989-1991. Final Report. P700-92-001. Prepared for Planning Departments of Alameda, Contra Costa and Solano Counties and the California Energy Commission, Sacramento, CA, by BioSystems Analysis, Inc., Tiburon, CA.

Robbins, C. 2002. Direct testimony of Chandler S. Robbins Dec. 6, 2002, in the matter of the application of Clipper 101 MW generating facility in Garrett County, MD, Windpower, Inc. Case # 8938.

Robel, R.J., J. A. Harrington, Jr., C.A. Hagen, J.C. Pitman, and R.R. Reker. 2004. Effect of Energy Development and Human Activity on the Use of Sand Sagebrush Habitat by Lesser Prairie-Chickens in Southwestern Kansas. Transactions of the North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference. 69: 251-266. 

Smallwood, K. S., and C. G. Thelander. 2004. Developing methods to reduce bird mortality in the Altamont pass wind resource area. Final report. P500-04-052. Prepared for California Energy Commission, Public Interest Energy Research Program, Sacramento, CA.

Smallwood, K. S., and C. G. Thelander. 2005. Bird mortality at the Altamont pass wind resource area: March 1998-September 2001. Subcontract Report NREL/SR-500-36973. Prepared for National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO.

Smallwood, K. S. and C. G. Thelander. 2008. Bird mortality in the Altamont pass wind resource area, California. Journal of Wildlife Management. 72: 215–223.

Stewart, G.B., A.S. Pullin, and C.F. Coles. 2004. Effects of wind turbines on bird abundance. Review Report. Centre for Evidence-based Conservation, Systematic Review No. 4, Univ. Birmingham, UK. 49 pp.

Stewart, G.B., A.S. Pullin, and C.F. Coles. 2007. Poor evidence-base for assessment of windfarm impacts on birds. Environmental Conservation. 34: 1-11.

Weinberg, C. and R.H. Williams. 1990. Energy from the Sun. Scientific American. 263(September): 146-155.

Winkleman, J. E. 1995. Bird/wind turbine investigations in Europe. Pages 43-47 in Proceedings of National Avian-Wind Power Planning Meeting. National Wind Coordinating Committee / RESOLVE. Washington, D.C.

Woodward, A.J.W., S.D. Fuhlendorf, D. M. Leslie, Jr., and J. Shackford. 2001. Influence of Landscape Composition and Change on Lesser Prairie-Chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) Populations. American Midland Naturalist. 145: 261-274. 

Young, D. P., Jr., W. P. Erickson, M. D. Strickland, R. E. Good, and K. J. Sernka. 2003. Comparison of Avian Responses to UV-Light-Reflective Paint on Wind Turbines: July 1999-December 2000. NREL/SR-500-32840. Prepared by Western EcoSystems Technology (WEST), Inc. for National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

References for the data contained in the figures, organized by wind energy facility, are listed below.

Wind Energy Facility
Reference
Big Horn, WA
Kronner, K., B. Gritski, and S. Downes. 2008. Big Horn Wind Power Project Wildlife Fatality Monitoring Study: 2006−2007. Final report prepared for PPM Energy and the Big Horn Wind Project Technical Advisory Committee by Northwest Wildlife Consultants, Inc. (NWC), Mid-Columbia Field Office, Goldendale, Washington. June 1, 2008.
Blue Sky Green Field, WI
Gruver, J., M. Sonnenburg, K. Bay, and W. Erickson. 2009. Post-Construction Bat and Bird Fatality Study at the Blue Sky Green Field Wind Energy Center, Fond Du Lac County, Wisconsin July 21 – October 31, 2008 and March 15 – June 4, 2009. Unpublished report prepared by Western EcoSystems Technology, Inc. (WEST), Cheyenne, Wyoming. December 17, 2009.
Note:
All Bird Fatalities: 11.83 fatalities/turbine/year
Bat Fatalities: 40.54 fatalities/turbine/year
Buffalo Gap, TX
Tierney, R. 2007. Buffalo Gap I Wind Farm Avian Mortality Study: February 2006-January 2007. Final Survey Report. Prepared for AES SeaWest, Inc. TRC, Albuquerque, New Mexico.TRC Report No. 110766-C-01. May 2007.
Buffalo Mnt, TN (’00-’03)
Nicholson, C.P. 2003. Buffalo Mountain Windfarm Bird and Bat Mortality Monitoring Report: October 2001 – September 2002. Tennessee Valley Authority, Knoxville, Tennessee. February 2003.
Nicholson, C.P., J. R.D. Tankersley, J.K. Fiedler, and N.S. Nicholas. 2005. Assessment and Prediction of Bird and Bat Mortality at Wind Energy Facilities in the Southeastern United States. Final Report. Tennessee Valley Authority, Knoxville, Tennessee.
Buffalo Mnt, TN (’06)
Buffalo Ridge, MN
Casselman, PA
Combine Hills, OR
Young, D.P. Jr., J. Jeffrey, W.P. Erickson, K. Bay, and V.K. Poulton. 2006. Eurus Combine Hills Turbine Ranch. Phase 1 Post Construction Wildlife Monitoring First Annual Report. Technical report prepared for Eurus Energy America Corporation, San Diego, California, and the Combine Hills Technical Advisory Committee, Umatilla County, Oregon. Prepared by Western EcoSystems Technology, Inc. (WEST), Cheyenne, Wyoming, and Northwest Wildlife Consultants, Inc. (NWC), Pendleton, Oregon.
Crescent Ridge, IL
Kerlinger, P., R. Curry, A. Hasch, and J. Guarnaccia. 2007. Migratory Bird and Bat Monitoring Study at the Crescent Ridge Wind Power Project, Bureau County, Illinois: September 2005 – August 2006. Final draft prepared for Orrick Herrington and Sutcliffe, LLP. May 2007.
Diablo Winds, CA
Western EcoSystems Technology, Inc. (WEST). 2008. Diablo Winds Wildlife Monitoring Progress Report, March 2005 – February 2007. Prepared by WEST, Cheyenne, Wyoming. August 2008.
Foote Creek Rim, WY
Young, D.P. Jr., W.P. Erickson, R.E. Good, M.D. Strickland, and G.D. Johnson. 2003. Avian and Bat Mortality Associated with the Initial Phase of the Foote Creek Rim Windpower Project, Carbon County, Wyoming, Final Report, November 1998 – June 2002. Prepared for Pacificorp, Inc. Portland, Oregon, SeaWest Windpower Inc. San Diego, California, and Bureau of Land Management, Rawlins District Office, Rawlins, Wyoming.
High Winds, CA
Kerlinger, P., R. Curry, L. Culp, A. Jain, C. Wilkerson, B. Fischer, and A. Hasch. 2006. Post-Construction Avian and Bat Fatality Monitoring for the High Winds Wind Power Project, Solano County, California: Two Year Report. Prepared for High Winds LLC, FPL Energy by Curry and Kerlinger, LLC. April 2006.
Hopkins Ridge, WA
Young, D.P. Jr., W.P. Erickson, J. Jeffrey, and V.K. Poulton. 2007. Puget Sound Energy Hopkins Ridge Wind Project Phase 1 Post-Construction Avian and Bat Monitoring First Annual Report, January – December 2006. Technical report for Puget Sound Energy, Dayton, Washington and Hopkins Ridge Wind Project Technical Advisory Committee, Columbia County, Washington. Western EcoSystems Technology, Inc. (WEST) Cheyenne, Wyoming, and Walla Walla, Washington. 25 pp.
Judith Gap, MT
Kewaunee County, WI
Howe, R.W., W. Evans, and A.T. Wolf. 2002. Effects of Wind Turbines on Birds and Bats in Northeastern Wisconsin. Prepared by University of Wisconsin-Green Bay, for Wisconsin Public Service Corporation and Madison Gas and Electric Company, Madison, Wisconsin. November 21, 2002. 104 pp.
Klondike II, OR
Northwest Wildlife Consultants, Inc. (NWC) and Western EcoSystems Technology, Inc. (WEST). 2007. Avian and Bat Monitoring Report for the Klondike II Wind Power Project. Sherman County, Oregon. Prepared for PPM Energy, Portland, Oregon. Managed and conducted by NWC, Pendleton, Oregon. Analysis conducted by WEST, Cheyenne, Wyoming. July 17, 2007.
Klondike, OR
Leaning Juniper, OR
Gritski, B., K. Kronner, and S. Downes. 2008. Leaning Juniper Wind Power Project, 2006 − 2008. Wildlife Monitoring Final Report. Prepared for PacifiCorp Energy, Portland, Oregon. Prepared by Northwest Wildlife Consultants, Inc. (NWC), Pendleton, Oregon. December 30, 2008.
Maple Ridge, NY (’06)
Jain, A., P. Kerlinger, R. Curry, and L. Slobodnik. 2007. Annual Report for the Maple Ridge Wind Power Project: Post-Construction Bird and Bat Fatality Study – 2006. Final Report. Prepared for PPM Energy and Horizon Energy and Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) for the Maple Ridge Project Study.
Maple Ridge, NY (’07)
Jain, A., P. Kerlinger, R. Curry, and L. Slobodnik. 2008. Annual Report for the Maple Ridge Wind Power Project: Post-Construction Bird and Bat Fatality Study – 2007. Final report prepared for PPM Energy and Horizon Energy and Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) for the Maple Ridge Project Study.
Mars Hill, ME (’07)
Stantec Consulting, Inc. (Stantec). 2008. 2007 Spring, Summer, and Fall Post-Construction Bird and Bat Mortality Study at the Mars Hill Wind Farm, Maine. Prepared for UPC Wind Management, LLC, Cumberland, Maine, by Stantec Consulting, formerly Woodlot Alternatives, Inc., Topsham, Maine. January, 2008.
Mars Hill, ME (’08)
Stantec Consulting, Inc. (Stantec). 2009. Post-Construction Monitoring at the Mars Hill Wind Farm, Maine – Year 2, 2008. Prepared for First Wind Management, LLC, Portland, Maine. Prepared by Stantec Consulting, Topsham, Maine. January 2009.
Meyersdale, PA
Arnett, E.B., W.P. Erickson, J. Kerns, and J. Horn. 2005. Relationships between Bats and Wind Turbines in Pennsylvania and West Virginia: An Assessment of Fatality Search Protocols, Patterns of Fatality, and Behavioral Interactions with Wind Turbines. Prepared for the Bats and Wind Energy Cooperative. March 2005.
Mount Storm, WV (’08)
Young, D.P. Jr., W.P. Erickson, K. Bay, S. Nomani, and W. Tidhar. 2009. Mount Storm Wind Energy Facility, Phase 1 Post-Construction Avian and Bat Monitoring, July – October 2008. Prepared for NedPower Mount Storm, LLC, Houston, Texas, by Western EcoSystems Technology (WEST), Inc., Cheyenne, Wyoming.
Mountaineer, WV
Nine Canyon, WA
Noble Bliss, NY
Jain, A., P. Kerlinger, R. Curry, L. Slobodnik, J. Quant, and D. Pursell. 2009c. Annual Report for the Noble Bliss Windpark, LLC, Postconstruction Bird and Bat Fatality Study – 2008. Prepared for Noble Environmental Power, LLC by Curry and Kerlinger, LLC. April 13, 2009.
Noble Clinton, NY
Jain, A., P. Kerlinger, R. Curry, L. Slobodnik, J. Histed, and J. Meacham. 2009b. Annual Report for the Noble Clinton Windpark, LLC, Postconstruction Bird and Bat Fatality Study – 2008. Prepared for Noble Environmental Power, LLC by Curry and Kerlinger, LLC. April 13, 2009.
Noble Ellenburg, NY
Jain, A., P. Kerlinger, R. Curry, L. Slobodnik, A. Fuerst, and C. Hansen. 2009a. Annual Report for the Noble Ellenburg Windpark, LLC, Postconstruction Bird and Bat Fatality Study – 2008. Prepared for Noble Environmental Power, LLC by Curry and Kerlinger, LLC. April 13, 2009.
NPPD Ainsworth, NE
Derby, C., A. Dahl, W. Erickson, K. Bay, and J. Hoban. 2007. Post-Construction Monitoring Report for Avian and Bat Mortality at the NPPD Ainsworth Wind Farm. Unpublished report prepared by Western EcoSystems Technology, Inc. (WEST), Cheyenne, Wyoming, for the Nebraska Public Power District.
OK Wind Energy Center, OK
SMUD, CA
URS, W.P. Erickson, and L. Sharp. 2005. Phase 1 and Phase 1A Avian Mortality Monitoring Report for 2004-2005 for the SMUD Solano Wind Project. Prepared for Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD), Sacramento, California. Co-Authors: Wally Erickson, Western EcoSystems Technology, Inc. (WEST) and Lynn Sharp, Environmental Consultant. August 2005.
Stateline, OR/WA
Summerview, Alb
Baerwald, E.F. 2008. Variation in the Activity and Fatality of Migratory Bats at Wind Energy Facilities in Southern Alberta: Causes and Consequences. Thesis. University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
Summerview, Alb (’05/’06)
Top of Iowa, IA
Jain, A. 2005. Bird and Bat Behavior and Mortality at a Northern Iowa Windfarm. M.S. Thesis. Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa.
Vansycle, OR
Wild Horse, WA
Erickson, W.P., J. Jeffrey, and V.K. Poulton. 2008. Avian and Bat Monitoring: Year 1 Report. Puget Sound Energy Wild Horse Wind Project, Kittitas County, Washington. Prepared for Puget Sound Energy, Ellensburg, Washington, by Western EcoSystems Technology, Inc. (WEST), Cheyenne, Wyoming. January 2008.